Prof. Dr. Giorgio Buonanno 
University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Italy

Do waste incinerators contribute to the airborne particle dose received by urban citizens?

On the basis of the growing interest on the impact of airborne particles on human exposure as well as the strong debate in Western countries on the emissions of waste incinerators, the presentation will review existing literature to: (i) show the emission factors of ultrafine particles (particles with a diameter less than 100 nm) of waste incinerators by evaluating the influence of different flue gas treatments; and (ii) assess the contribution of waste incinerators in terms of ultrafine particles to exposure and dose of people living in the surrounding areas of the plants in order to estimate eventual risks.

Giorgio Buonanno graduated in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Cassino, obtaining the title of PhD in 1996. He is currently full professor of Applied Thermodynamics at the University of Cassino and Southern Lazio. He has collaborated with several National Measurement Institutes, with whom he has completed several research assignments. His research interests have focused mainly on mass and energy transport in porous media, thermal-fluid-dynamics measurement techniques and environmental monitoring issues, in particular airborne particles on which he focused his research activity of the last 10 years. He is the author of over 200 scientific papers published in national and international journals.

 

Prof. Dr. Martin Ebert
Technical University of Darmstadt, Germany

What can we learn from single particle characterization?

For chemical characterization of aerosol particles usually chemical bulk analysis is applied, which yields absolute /relative contents of specific elements/components within the aerosol fraction. This chemical information is sufficient for many questions. But for all questions, where the impact of the aerosol particles is linked with the properties of the individual particles, more extensive gain of knowledge can be obtained by individual particle analysis (IPA), linking the chemical composition with size, morphology and/or mixing-state of the individual particles. In this talk an overview about the capabilities and applications of the IPA within aerosol research is given.

Prof. Dr. Martin Ebert is Leader of the Scanning Electron Microscopy research group at the Institute of Applied Geosciences, discipline Environmental Mineralogy, Technical University of Darmstadt (TUD). He thereby addresses the detailed physicochemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles by means of electron-microscopic single-particle analysis. In 2006, Prof. Ebert was honored with the Adolf Messer Foundation's Science Award, endowed with 50,000 euros, for his pioneering research in this field. Born in 1970, the scientist studied chemistry at the TU Darmstadt, obtained his doctorate as an analytical chemist in materials science and, following a scientific stay in the USA, has been working intensely since 2003 in applied geosciences. His work into the characterization of individual aerosol particles with regard to concentration, size, chemical and mineralogical composition and mixing state as well as his electron-microscopic in-situ experiments address both the climatic and the health effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. In recent years, his main working priorities have included particle/water interactions (heterogeneous ice nucleation, deliquescence), particles in urban environments and workplaces (steel production, nickel industry, open-cast coal mining, transport) as well as the characterization of refractory particles in the stratosphere.

 

Prof. Dr. Kai-Uwe Goss
Helmholtz UFZ, Leipzig, Germany

Sorption to aerosols – a systematic approach

A systematic approach to a quantitative understanding of equilibrium sorption of organic molecules to various types of aerosols must be based on a sound mechanistic understanding. Correlations between equilibrium sorption coefficients and their saturated vapor pressure or their octanol-air partition coefficients are empirical and therefore a quite weak basis for predictive purposes. This talk will demonstrate the weaknesses of these empirical approaches and outline an alternative method directly based on estimated intermolecular interactions. Absorption and adsorption to various sorbent materials (minerals, salts, soot, organics) will be looked at based on experimental data.

Kai-Uwe Goss studied Geoecology in Bayreuth, Germany. He finished his PhD in environmental chemistry in 1993. This was followed by a 2-year Post-Doc position at the University of Minnesota, USA. The next 10 years he worked at EAWAG and ETH Zürich with Prof. Rene Schwarzenbach. Since 2007 he is heading the Department of Analytical Environmental Chemistry at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig, Germany.

 

Prof. Dr. Hai Guo
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Particulate and gaseous organic compounds in typical Asian homes

While outdoor air pollution has been extensively studied around the world, much less attention has been paid to indoor air pollution though we spend most of time indoors. Hong Kong, an Asian metropolis, is known for the heavy street-level air pollution and busy traffics, dense and tall buildings, and the small per-capita living space. Cooking, smoking and incense burning are common activities in Hong Kong homes. From the perspective of fundamental science, it is fascinating to explore the factors that govern the airborne chemical environment in which we spend most of our time living and breathing.
There are numerous chemicals indoors, and the majorities of them are organics in either gas or particle phase. Due to the limitation of analytical techniques, the current understandings on speciation and abundance of indoor organics are quite insufficient. Besides, the sources of indoor organics are diverse and complicated, remaining unclear to support the effective artificial measures. The relatively stagnant air, weak irradiance but potentially unrecognized sources of radicals also makes the indoor chemistry distinctive from that outdoors. Namely, the formation mechanisms of indoor secondary organics are to be understood. All of the aforementioned insufficiencies hinder the comprehensive evaluation on the toxicity of indoor organics.
In the talk, results will be presented from a recent field campaign in a normally occupied residential home. We will use Thermal-desorption Aerosol Gas-Chromatograph Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TAG-Tof-MS) and High-resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (HR-Tof-AMS) to analyze ~100 organics in particles, and the gaseous indoor organics will be quantified by Proton-Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) indoors. This investigation is the first time that such monitoring has been undertaken in Hong Kong residence. By collecting extensive metadata, we determined emissions of hundreds of particulate-phase and gas-phase organic compounds at hourly time resolution, traced the locations/activities associated with these emissions, and examined the role of environmental parameters on emissions. From ongoing analysis of these field campaign data, we aim to answer important questions about the indoor chemical and physical transformations of particulate and gaseous organic compounds and their implications for human exposure.

Dr Hai GUO completed his Ph.D. study in Air Quality in Australia and conducted his postdoctoral research in USA, Hong Kong and Australia. He is currently the Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and an Adjunct Professor at Queensland University of Technology, Australia, and Wuhan University and Tongji University, China. Prof. GUO’s major research interests include atmospheric chemistry, ozone formation mechanisms, source apportionment, secondary organic aerosols, acidic ultrafine particles and new particle formation. Prof. GUO is an investigator of more than 50 highly competitive external research projects with grants over 60 million Hong Kong dollars. He has published over 210 papers in high-quality international journals and conference proceedings with over 6000 citations (Google scholar) to date. His current h-index is 40. He is an editor of Aerosol and Air Quality Research, and an editorial Board member of Atmosphere (Air session), and Atmospheric Environment. He is an executive member of Australia-China Centre for Air Quality Science and Management, and the standing committee member of The Ozone Pollution Control Professional Committee of the Chinese Society of Environmental Sciences.

 

Prof. Dr. Linsey Marr
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, United States

A Gigasecond Perspective on Nanomaterials in Consumer Products

Engineered nanomaterials are appearing in a growing number of consumer products, such as cosmetics, cleaners, and water repellants. Some of these products are sprays or powders, whose use can lead to inhalation exposure to nanomaterials. Although we may envision a puff of pure, monodisperse, separated particles, engineered nanomaterials released into air are typically aggregated with other particulate matter, and the size of such aggregates may range from smaller than 10 nanometers to larger than 10 micrometers. Like many aerosols, engineered nanomaterials are subject to chemical transformations in the atmosphere that may modify the nanomaterials’ fate and toxicity.

Dr. Linsey Marr is the Charles P. Lunsford Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech. Her research group studies the emissions, transformation, transport, and fate of air pollutants in indoor and outdoor air. She is especially interested in emerging or non-traditional aerosols such as engineered nanomaterials and viral pathogens. Dr. Marr is a Fellow of the International Society of Indoor Air Quality and Climate (ISIAQ). She holds a B.S. in Engineering Science from Harvard College and a Ph.D. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley.

 

Dr. Mandana Mazaheri
NSW Government, Department of Planning, Industry and Environment, Sydney, Australia

Children’s personal exposure to ultrafine particles – how far have we come?

Recent studies suggest that even modest reductions in ambient air pollution can result in measurable health benefits. The overall synthesis of the currently available literature has identified large variations between individual environmental and lifestyle factors driving children’s spatio-temporal exposures to ultrafine particles throughout a day, even within the same study area or same microenvironment, such as schools. Although these studies focused on children’s exposures, they highlight the complexity of exposure assessment and that fixed-site monitoring does not provide a realistic estimate, especially within indoor microenvironments where people spend most of their time. They also demonstrated the impacts of community awareness in improving indoor air quality.  

Dr. Mandana Mazaheri is a senior air quality scientist, currently based at the NSW Department of Planning, Industry and Environment in Sydney, Australia. Her work involves assessing air quality and environmental impacts of large-scale energy and mining developments. She has collaborated with the World Health Organization – European Centre for Environment and Health as an invited consultant working on the role of green spaces in planning healthier cities. Her main research interests encompass urban air quality, human and environmental exposures, energy and transport emissions, and their health impacts.

 

Prof. Dr. Lidia Morawska
Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Ultrafine particles: outside the box or not yet?

In 2018 a group of exposure experts, toxicologist and epidemiologist joint forces to think outside the box, and to use the wealth of scientific knowledge on UFP physico-chemistry, toxicology and epidemiology to develop an approach that will create the basis for protection against the particles. The group has been working on developing a White Paper to inform decision makers on the state of knowledge on UFP and on conducting meta-analysis of data from epidemiologic studies in an attempt to identify exposure limits for UFP. The presentation will summarize the progress of this work and the picture that has emerged.

Lidia Morawska is a Professor at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Brisbane, Australia, and the Director of the International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health (ILAQH) at QUT. She conducts fundamental and applied research in the interdisciplinary field of air quality and its impact on human health and the environment, with a specific focus on science of airborne particulate matter (ultrafine and nanoparticles). Dr Morawska is an author of over five hundred journal papers, book chapters and refereed conference papers and a recipient of numerous scientific awards. Among her many roles, she has been acting as an advisor to the World Health Organization.

 

Dr. Roel Schins
IUF – Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine, Düsseldorf, Germany

Health effects of particles beyond the lung: from cellular to systemic effects

Inhalation exposure to particles constitutes a major human health burden. Epidemiological studies have provided insight into the health risks posed by ambient particulate matter (PM) while toxicological studies have identified mechanisms and particle components involved in adverse effects on cells and organs. Transition metals, particle-bound organics, and ultrafine particles are widely recognised as the key factors promoting PM-induced lung diseases. The demonstrated ability of ultrafine particles to translocate to other organs provides a mechanistic basis for the associations between PM exposure and extrapulmonary (systemic) effects, such as cardiovascular diseases, and the growing concern about its adverse impact on the brain.

Dr. Roel Schins is a toxicologist and heads a research group at the IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine. His main research is directed at understanding how particles (i.e. ambient particulate matter, mineral dusts and engineered nanomaterials) can cause diseases in humans. In this context, he authored over 150 papers with an h-index of 50. He sits on the German Permanent Senate Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area ("DFG MAK Kommission") and he has provided expert advice on the toxicology of particles to various further organisations such as the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, the EU-Health and Food Safety Department (DG-SANTE/SCCS) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO).

 

Dr. Mar Viana
EGAR at IDAEA, Barcelona, Spain

Ultrafine particles in industrial workplaces: sources, health impacts and mitigation strategies

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are ubiquitous in industrial workplaces: whether engineered or unintentionally formed and released, or even infiltrated form outdoor air, UFPs (or nanoparticles) can be the source of major exposure impacts. Key challenges in industrial settings are discrimination between industrial and background aerosols, as well as particle transformation after emission and toxicity. Mitigation strategies should be custom-designed and efficiently implemented, in order to achieve an effective reduction of personal exposures.

Dr. Mar Viana is staff researcher at IDAEA-CSIC in Barcelona. Her research focuses on the characterization, monitoring and assessment of indoor and outdoor air quality, with special attention to personal exposure and the interpretation of aerosol sources and emission mechanisms. She has experience in both technical aspects and legislative issues of air quality, as well as interests in workplace exposure to ultrafine and nanoparticles.

 

Prof. Dr. Michael Waring
Drexel University, Philadelphia, United States

Dr. Michael Waring is an Associate Professor at Drexel University, where he is Director of Architectural Engineering in the Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering. His research focuses on fate and transport of indoor aerosol and gas-phase pollutants, over three main areas: (i) understanding drivers of indoor organic aerosol mass transformations, composition, and interactions with indoor surfaces; (ii) parameterizing SOA formation and pollutant source strengths; and (iii) developing improved ventilation strategies that maximize building performance from both indoor air quality and energy use perspectives. He is working to combine elements of these efforts into robust simulation tools.

 

Prof. Dr. Alfred Wiedensohler
Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Leipzig, Germany

Indoor particle exposure and its relationship to outdoors: A Study of particle number, mass concentrations and size distirbutions in 40 Homes in Germany

Only few study have investigated the residential particle exposure with a full picture of the particle number size distribution (PNSD) from 10 nm to 10 µm in particle diameter. There is also a lack of knowledge in representative residential particle exposure levels in terms of long-term measurements and in multiple homes. In this investigation, simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements were performed in 40 non-smoking homes in Leipzig and Berlin for 10–14 days each, during different seasons. Measurements were also accompanied by a digital residential activities diary, this unique dataset allows us to capture the diurnal and seasonal variation of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles number and mass concentrations (PNC and PMC, respectively), PNSD, and the corresponding indoor-to-outdoor relationships. The main findings of this study showed that the German residents were exposed to a significantly higher mass concentration of coarse particle indoors (re-suspended dust) than outdoors, while the median indoor PNC was lower (median I/O ratio 0.69). Moreover, indoor and outdoor particle exposure were much different in the cold season compared to the warm season. In the warm season, due to a more frequent active ventilation (open windows), indoor PNC and PNSD were very similar to outdoors. In the cold season, indoor sources caused peaks of indoor PNC due to cooking & baking activities and candles. Due to a relatively low penetration factor of 0.5 for all size ranges (tight windows), the indoor particle exposure is significantly different to outdoors. For better understanding of the dynamic behavior of indoor particles, it is crucial to measure both indoor and outdoor PNSD. Moreover, the residents’ activities log is important for better interpreting the sources’ contribution.

Prof. Dr. Alfred Wiedensohler is a Professor at the Faculty of Physics and Geoscience at the University of Leipzig and Head of the Department of Experimental Aerosol and Cloud Microphysics at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS). He has worked in the field of aerosol physics, aerosol technology and atmospheric aerosol since 1983. He is presently adjunct professor at the Fudan University in Shanghai, China. He is author and co-author of 380 peer-reviewed publications.  He is head of the WMO-GAW World calibration Center of Aerosol Physics and the ACTRIS European center for Aerosol Calibration.