|Paper title||On Monitoring the Impact of Floods and Extreme Weather Events in Protected Cultural Heritage Areas: The Venice Lagoon Case Study|
|Form of presentation||Poster|
Coastal flood risk and adaptation are worldwide concerns About 40 million people are currently living in coastal port cities are likely to be subject to one big coastal flood event each century. The most significant inundation mainly occurs in the delta regions of Asia and Europe, including China, the Netherlands, Vietnam, and Egypt, all of which have relatively sensitive flood exposure. Besides, European coasts will also be strongly impacted by climate-induced flood risk in the coming century. Satellite remote sensing is a valuable tool for detecting and monitoring flood phenomena –, allowing the differentiation between inundated and non-inundated areas. Flood risk increases due to urban growth, ground subsidence and climate change. Identifying areas more prone to extreme floods is useful for optimizing urban planners’ civil protection actions and evaluating damage. In recent years, new advances in RS technology – have allowed the generation of rapid damage prediction maps and associated models helpful in the occurrence of a flood event [e.g., using the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (https://emergency.copernicus.eu/)].
In this work, we address the impacts of floods and extreme weather events on coastal areas cultural heritage preservation by focusing on the case of the monumental city of Venice and the whole Venice Lagoon area. The Venice Lagoon represents the largest lagoonal system in Italy, one of the largest in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the most important industrial areas of Italy. The lagoonal system comprises the city of Venice, which represents an extraordinary archaeological, urban, architectural, artistic, and cultural heritage masterpiece. The Venice Lagoon ecosystem  is characterized by different drivers of change (land-based feeding activities, heavy metal extraction, ground-water extraction, etc), causing multiple environmental impacts of the Lagune; the subsidence phenomenon of the terrain is one of the most important.
Flooding events have always characterized the Venice Lagoon area, mainly result from a combination of tide, seiches, and easterly winds. In the last decades, due to the climate change phenomenon that continuously estate the rise in sea level, flooding events of the Venice Lagoon became more frequent. In such a context, new techniques that allow to timely monitor the ground deformations of the area are needed.
In this work, we analyze the ground deformation (subsidence) occurred in Venice Lagoon in the recent years using the multi-temporal interferometric Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique , . We also study the interlinked effects among the background subsidence of the area and the recent extreme flood events that occurred on November 2019 by analyzing the time-series of the S-1 backscattered signals, identifying the extent of flooded regions and the impact of floods on the built CH. Specifically, coherent and incoherent change detection methods have been applied to study these phenomena. The analyses have been carried out considering a set of 120 Sentinel1-A images, acquired in the period from January 2017 to December 2021. This study aims to make a comprehensive analysis of the subsidence deformations that occurs in the Venice Lagoon to evaluate the risks related to extreme flood events that could characterize the area in the near future. We also provide some basic models describing the long-term risk of flooding in the entire Lagoon region and potentially extending the investigation to the river delta system of the Po River.
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