|Paper title||A new generation of airborne imaging spectrometer systems for accurate mapping of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations – status and perspectives|
|Form of presentation||Poster|
Anthropogenic emissions of well-mixed greenhouse gases are currently the main drivers of tropospheric warming. Among the well-mixed greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the most important contributors. To limit the global warming, emissions of CH4 and CO2 must be reduced, and reduction claims need to be monitored. Additionally, knowledge of especially CH4 emission sources like landfills, oil, gas and coal production has to be expanded. During the last few years several different satellite sensors demonstrated anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions detection and/or quantification at various spatial scales and spatial resolution, but there is a lack of airborne systems for emission characterization as well as for validation and verification of the new satellite data. In this context, University of Bremen started the development of a new generation of airborne imaging spectrometer systems for accurate mapping of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4) based on more than ten years of experience with operating the MAMAP airborne system. The first sensor - in a series of three – is the MAMAP2D-Light (M2DL) instrument. M2DL is a relatively light weight (~42 kg) single channel imaging spectrometer covering absorption bands of CO2 and CH4 between ~1575 and ~1700 nm with a spectral resolution of ~1.1 nm. The instrument is designed to fit into the under-wing pod of a motor glider aircraft (Diamond HK36 TTC-ECO) of the Jade University of Applied Sciences in Wilhelmshaven. At a typical flight altitude of ~1500 m the instrument samples 28 ground scenes across the ~600 m wide swath with a single ground sampling size of approximately 20 m across x 3 m along the flight track. Successful test flights were performed in 2021. While designed to detect and quantify CO2 and CH4 emissions from point sources, it additionally serves as precursor and demonstrator for the larger 2-channel imaging spectrometer MAMAP2D, which is currently being built, as well as the planned ESA CO2M airborne demonstrator.
MAMAP2D (M2D) – currently under construction – is a two channel imaging spectrometer covering the O2A band and the absorption bands of CO2 and CH4 between ~1590 and ~1690 nm with a spectral resolution of < 0.4 nm. The instrument is designed to fit into the cabin of different types of aircraft (pressurised and non-pressurised). At a flight altitude of ~1500 m the instrument samples 37 ground scenes across the ~ 670 m wide swath with a single ground sampling size of approximately 18 m across x 7 m along the flight track.
The third sensor in this series will be the CAMAP2D (Carbon And Methane mAPper 2D), which emerged from ESA’s CO2M airborne demonstrator activities. CAMAP2D will be built for ESA by adding a 2 µm channel to MAMAP2D and further modifications of MAMAP2D to reach the ambitious performance goals for CO2 monitoring.
In this presentation we summarise the status and perspective of the new generation of airborne GHG imaging systems. This will include performance estimates, data analysis strategies as well as initial results from M2DL measurement flight targeting the CO2 emission plume of the coal-fired power plant Jänschwalde in Germany in June 2021. Future applications for emission characterization, satellite data validation and airborne data driven science studies in support of satellite data products from S5P, S5 and CO2M as well as from hyperspectral (PRISMA, ENMAP, CHIME) and spatial very high resolution imagery (WV3, Sentinel 2) will be discussed.